It may be a very difficult task to find out which strength exercises are best for improving vertical jump height. But is easy to find out the the muscles that are used and the types of strength that they need to display for vertical jumping.
Factors that determines Vertical Jump
The relative vertical impulse that can be produced by the lower body muscles in the upward phase of the jump determines the jump height. The feet has to be still in contact with the ground.The force produced multiplied by the duration of time over which is is exerted is vertical impulse. The vertical impulse divided by body weight gives the relative vertical impulse.
Thus you can increase the jump height by using a slightly deeper counter movement. The larger range of motion will allow the muscles to exert force for a long period of time before take-off. Even though the force produced is almost always smaller, jump height can increase.
Long duration of time
Anything that alters the amount of time available to produce force will affect vertical jump height. This is because vertical impulse is determined by both the force produced and the time over which that force is exerted. Three factors play a very important role in this.
The first important factor is the rate at which force is developed. There will be a greater vertical impulse when force rises faster at the start of the jump. Also, the peak force will be the same. For vertical jumping, rate of force development is likely less important than for faster athletic movements such as sprinting. The time available for force production is ten times longer in the vertical jump than in sprinting.
The second factor is the size of the force. It will itself produces a negative feedback effect on vertical impulse because higher forces lead to faster accelerations. This will in turn reduce the time spent producing force before take-off.
The interactions between the muscle and tendon is the third factor. It has an impact on the counter movement depth that an athlete uses. It will affect the vertical impulse because a greater counter movement leads to a longer time spent producing force.
You can increase vertical jump height through increases in counter movement depth. This happens because the tendons will elongate more during the counter movement period of the jump of the individual.This is preceded by a counter movement the muscle lengthens less. There are two effects for this. The first effect is that the greater elongation of the tendon means that more elastic energy is being stored during the counter movement. This will be then released in the subsequent jumping phase.
The other is that the smaller elongation of the muscle means that counter movement depth can be greater for the same shortening velocity in the subsequent jumping phase. This happens because the muscle never lengthened that much to begin with. The shortening velocity allows the same muscle force to be produced. This is despite the larger joint range of motion that takes place.
Any factor that affects the amount of force that can be produced will affect vertical impulse in addition to the duration of time. This will alter vertical jump height. The main factor that affects force production is the force-velocity relationship which is science. The number of cross bridges that are simultaneously attached between the filaments inside the working muscle fibres has the capacity to determine the amount of force that a fibre can produce.
This is the reason for the force-velocity relationship during muscle shortening. The fibre shortening velocity determines the number of attached cross bridges at any one time. This is because the detachment rate of the cross bridges at the end of their working stroke will be quite higher at faster shortening speeds. Thus the force-velocity profile of the lower body muscles working together in the squat/jump pattern determines the amount of force that can be produced at a given velocity
Maximum strength, maximum velocity, and the slope of the force-velocity gradient are the three elements that describes the force-velocity profile. This is because what determines whether the balance between force and velocity is optimal at the desired speed for force production. Vertical jump height can be independently predicted by each of these factors.
An individual can benefit most from high-velocity strength training exercises with light loads when he/she has a force-velocity gradient angled such that force is too high and velocity is too low. On the opposite, they benefit most from low-velocity strength training exercises with heavy loads when the individual has a force-velocity gradient angled such that force is too low and velocity is too high.
Profiles that are not ideal for vertical jumping will be displayed by individuals with a long history of heavy strength training. This is because their force is too high, and their velocity is too low. Such people will need to focus on high-velocity strength training.